The Schuman Declaration (Illustrated)

 הצהרת שומאן

עורכי הסדרה הילה זהבי ושרון פרדו

 

ספר זה הוא פרויקט מיוחד בסדרת הספרים האירופים, יוזמה משותפת של מרכז סימון וייל למחקר וללימודי אירופה בת זמננו באוניברסיטת בן – גוריון בנגב ושל הוצאת הסברים אוב, תל אביב.

סדרה זו שמה לה למטרה להביא לראשונה לקוראי השפה העברית את כתבי היסוד של האמהות והאבות המכוננים של פרויקט איחודה של יבשת אירופה. הסדרה שואפת להיות מקור מהימן בשפה העברית לכתבי היסוד של פרויקט האינטגרציה האירופית, של המוסדות האירופיים המרכזיים ושל השחקנים והמדינות באירופה. בדרך זו יתאפשר לקוראים בישראל להיחשף למקורות החשיבה על פרויקט זה ולהגיון העומד בבסיסו של האיחוד האירופי.

הצהרת שומאן, הנאום שנשא רובר שומאן ב-9 במאי 1950, היא אחד הטקסטים המכוננים של האיחוד האירופי. ההצהרה מציעה את הקמתה של ישות חדשה בין צרפת לגרמניה, מיזם ששתי המדינות תהיינה שותפות שוות בו, לניהול משותף של ייצור הפחם והפלדה. הכוונה מאחורי מיזם משותף זה היתה שהוא יהיה צעד ראשון במיזוג האירופי, שהפך עם השנים, לאיחוד האירופי של ימינו. בהצהרה צרפת נטלה על עצמה את הובלת היוזמה להקמתה של אירופה חדשה על בסיס של שוויון מלא עם גרמניה, זאת, במקום להותיר את גרמניה, האויבת ההיסטורית שלה, כנועה וחלשה אחרי מלחמת העולם השנייה.

ההצהרה תורגמה לראשונה לעברית בשנת 2020, כחלק מהוצאתו לאור של ספרו של רובר שומאן "למען אירופה" בעברית. כעת היא רואה אור פעם נוספת, בצירוף איורים של ציטוטים נבחרים, שיצרו מאיירות גרמניות וישראליות, במטרה להנגיש את הטקסט לקהל הישראלי הרחב.

עורכי הסדרה מבקשים להודות לקרן קונרד אדנאואר - ישראל, לד"ר ביאטריס גורבנצ'י, לגברת סוזי דורינג פרסטון, ולגברת פליאנה קדם על התמיכה והשותפות בפרויקט. עוד מבקשים העורכים להודות גם לגברת גיל אלקבץ, על העזרה בהפקת הספר, לצוות מרכז סימון וייל למחקר וללימודי אירופה בת זמננו באוניברסיטת בן – גוריון בנגב, ולחברי המחלקה לפוליטיקה וממשל באוניברסיטת בן – גוריון בנגב על תמיכתם ארוכת השנים במחקריהם ובעבודתם האקדמית.

הספר הופק בשיתוף ובתמיכת קרן קונרד אדנאואר – ישראל, במסגרת פעילות מרכז סימון וייל למחקר ולהוראת אירופה בת זמננו – מרכז למצויינות במחקר ובהוראת הלימודים האירופיים ע"ש ז'אן מונה, אוניברסיטת בן – גוריון בנגב.

Robert Schuman

The Schuman Declaration 1950

Translation from French to Hebrew: Shiran Beck

Translation from French to Arabic: Anwar Saleem

Grammatical edit (Arabic): Anwar Saleem and Dr. Mansour Nasasra

Scientific editing: Dr. Hila Zahavi and Prof. Sharon Pardo

Production assistant: Gil Elkabetz

 

Illustrators:

Amit Rimon, Israel

Martha von Maydell, Germany

Shimrit Elkanati, Israel

Hadar Reuven, Israel

Smadar Bonen, Israel

Einat Tsarfati, Israel

  Silke Bachmann, Germany

 

Cover design: Adi Chen

Cover illustration: Smadar Bonen

Graphic design and editing: Adi Chen, Yael Brave

This unique project was published with the support of the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung in Israel In collaboration with The Simone Veil Research Centre for Contemporary European Studies National Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence,

Ben-Gurion University in the Negev

Brought to print – OVPress, Tel-Aviv

No part of this site may be copied, retransmitted, reposted, duplicated or otherwise used in any form or by any means - mechanical, optical, or otherwise - without the written permission of the publisher and the rights holder.

All rights to the illustrations are reserved to the creators and illustrators

The Schuman Declaration (May 9, 1950)

World Peace cannot be safeguarded without the making of creative efforts proportionate to the dangers which threaten it.

The contribution which an organized and living Europe can bring to civilization is indispensable to the maintenance of peaceful relations. in taking upon herself for more than 20 years the role of champion of a united Europe, France has always had as her essential aim the service of peace. a united Europe was not achieved and we had war.

Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. it will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe acquires the elimination of the old-age opposition of France and Germany.

Any action taken must in the first place concern these two countries.

With this aim in view, the French Government proposes that action be taken immediately on one limited but decisive point.

It proposes that Franco-German production of coal and steel as a whole be placed under a common High Authority, within the framework of an organization open to the participation of other countries of Europe.

The pooling of the coal and steel production should immediately provide the setting up of common foundations for economic development as a first step in the federation of Europe, and will change the destinies of those regions which have long been devoted to the manufacturer of munitions of war, of which they have been most constant victims.

The solidarity in production thus established will make it plain that any war between France and Germany becomes not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible.

The setting up of this powerful productive unit, open to all countries willing to take part and bound ultimately to provide all the member countries with the basic elements of industrial production on the same terms, will lay a true foundation for their economic unification.

This production will be offered to the world as a whole without distinction or exception, with the aim of contributing to the raising living standards and to promoting peaceful achievements. With increased resources Europe will be able to pursue the achievements of one its essential tasks, namely, the development of the African continent.

In this way, there will be realised simply and speedily that fusion of interest which is indispensable to the establishment of common economic system; it may be leaven from which may grow a wider and deeper community between countries long opposed to one another by sanguinary divisions.

By pooling basic production and by instituting a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and other member countries, this proposal will lead to the realization of the first concrete foundation of a European federation indispensable to the preservation of peace.

To promote the realization of objectives defined, the French Government is ready to open negotiations on the following bases.

The task with which this common High Authority will be charged will be that of securing in the shortest possible time the modernization of production and improvement of its quality; the supply of coal and steel on identical terms to the French and German markets, as well as the markets of other member countries; the development in common of exports to other countries; the equalization and improvement of the living conditions of workers in those industries.

To achieve these objectives, starting from the very different conditions in which the production of member countries is at present situated, it is proposed that certain transitional measures should be instituted, such as the application of production an investment plan, the establishment of compensating machinery for equating prices, and the certain of a restructuring fund to facilitate they rationalization of production. The movement of coal and steel between member countries will immediately be freed from all customs duty, and will not be affected by differential transport rates. conditions will gradually be created which will spontaneously provide for the more rational distribution of production at the highest level of productivity.

In contrast to international cartels, which tend to impose restrictive practices on distribution and the exploitation of national markets, and to maintain high profits, the organization will ensure the fusion of markets and the expansion of production.

The essential principles and undertaking defined above will be the subject of a treaty signed between the States and submitted for the ratification of their parliaments. The negotiations required to settle details of applications will be undertaken with the help of an arbitrator appointed by a common agreement. He will be entrusted with the task of seeing that the agreements reached conform with the principles laid down, and, in the event of a deadlock, he will decide what the solution is to be adopted.

The common High Authority entrusted with the management of the scheme will be composed of independent persons appointed by the governments, given equal representation. A chairman will be chosen by common agreement between the governments. The Authority’s decisions will be enforced in France, Germany and other member countries. Appropriated measures will be provided for means of appeal against the decisions of the Authority.

A representative of the United Nations will be accredited to the Authority, and will be instructed to make a public report to the United Nations twice yearly, giving an account of the working of the new organization, practically as a concern the safeguarding of its objectives.

The institution of High Authority will in no way prejudge the methods of ownership of enterprises. In the exercise of its functions, the common High Authority  will take into account the powers conferred upon the international Ruhr Authority and the obligations of all kind imposed upon Germany, so long as these remain in force.